‘The Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek’
-Peter Paul Rubens
Many Christians today have been fooled into believing that we are bound to uphold the Law of Moses. This may stem from a desire to conform to God’s will (though more often it is rooted in self-righteousness), but it is certainly misguided. Such people are actually continuing in an old heresy which the Apostles themselves contended against: Judaizing.
It is now pertinent to discuss what exactly Judaizing is. The word Judaize (Ioudaizo, Strong’s G2450) only appears once in our New Testament in reference to this heresy (Galatians 2.14). There St. Paul is addressing an error within the early Church and how he corrected it. In Galatians 2 St. Paul recounts how St. Peter would not publicly associate with the uncircumcised Greeks, Romans and Syrians in the Church. St. Paul then chastises him for this:
“14But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Judean, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Judeans, why compellest thou the Gentiles to Judaize [ioudaizein]?”
There is one other use of the term Judaize in the canonical books of the Bible; Esther 8.17. While there are disputes both ancient and modern as to the canonicity and historicity of the book of Esther, I do not feel qualified to speak on the matter, but here the Greek text of Esther 8.17 is useful to shed some light on how Judaizing was understood among Judean Grecephones in antiquity. Here in Esther 8 the Persian king declares that the Judeans in his satrapies were to be permitted to exercise their own laws and defend themselves from their oppressors. In fear of the power of the Judeans many are said to have converted to Judaism:
“17In every city and province wherever the ordinance was published: wherever the proclamation took place, the Judeans had joy and gladness, feasting and mirth: and many of the Gentiles were circumcised, and were Judaized [ioudaizon], for fear of the Judeans.”
Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance defines Ioudaizo as “to become a Judaean, i.e. “Judaize””. Judaizers are mentioned once in the work of Flavius Josephus (Wars of the Judeans 2.18.2) where he tells us “when the Syrians thought they had ruined the Judeans, they had the Judaizers in suspicion also … as if they were certainly foreigners”.
The 2nd century Christian writer Ignatius, in his Epistle to the Magnesians, wrote that “It is absurd to profess Christ Jesus, and to Judaize. For Christianity did not embrace Judaism, but Judaism Christianity” (10.3). Christianity was not to be a new sect of ancient Judaism subject to the Judean traditions and clinging to the Old Covenant; rather it was a New Covenant made with both the house of Israel and the house of Judah (Jeremiah 31.31-32, Hebrews 8.8-9).
From these four ancient sources it can be clearly seen that Judaizing is the adoption of Judean customs. When I call someone a Judaizer or their doctrine Judaizing, I am not slandering them as a lover or follower of the synagogue of Satan which presents itself as Judaism today; rather I am stating simply that they are following in this same ancient error which was recognized by St. Paul. The charge is no more or no less than that.
Now many will undoubtedly be thinking that the Law of Moses was not unique to the Kingdom of Judah or the province of Judea; it was given to the 12 tribes of Israel. It is a part of our Christian heritage. This is true, but just because the Mosaic Law is part of the history of the 12 tribes does not necessarily mean that it is something which binds Christians today. The Law of Moses which was given to Israel at Sinai is the body of conditions to the covenant made at Sinai. The Sinaitic Covenant was dependent upon Israel’s obedience to the Law of Moses (Exodus 19.5-6, Leviticus 26.14 ff., Deuteronomy 28.15 ff.) and when Israel broke the Old Covenant, so did God. Here are a few passages that show that Israel was divorced from God and the Old Covenant:
“10And I took my rod that was called Beauty, and I cut it asunder to make void my covenant, which I had made with all people. 11And it was made void in that day: and so the poor of the flock that keep for me, understood that it is the word of the Lord. 12And I said to them: If it be good in your eyes, bring hither my wages: and if not, be quiet. And they weighed for my wages thirty pieces of silver. 13And the Lord said to me: Cast it to the statuary, a handsome price, that I was prized at by them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and I cast them into the house of the Lord to the statuary. 14And I cut off my second rod that was called a Cord, that I might break the brotherhood between Juda and Israel.“
“1Say to your brother, My people, and to your sister, Pitied. 2Plead with your mother, plead: for she is not my wife, and I am not her husband: and I will remove her fornication out of my presence, and her adultery from between her breasts: 3that I may strip her naked, and make her again as she was at the day of her birth: and I will make her desolate, and make her as a dry land, and will kill her with thirst.”
“1Thus saith the Lord, Of what kind is your mother’s bill of divorcement, by which I put her away? or to which debtor have I sold you? Behold, ye are sold for your sins, and for your iniquities have I put your mother away.”
“6And the Lord said to me in the days of Josias the king, Hast thou seen what things the house of Israel has done to me? they have gone on every high mountain, and under every shady tree, and have committed fornication there. 7And I said after she had committed all these acts of fornication, Turn again to me. Yet she returned not. And faithless Juda saw her faithlessness. 8And I saw that (for all the sins of which she was convicted, wherein the house of Israel committed adultery, and I put her away, and gave into her hands a bill of divorcement,) yet faithless Juda feared not, but went and herself also committed fornication.”
“31Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Juda: 32not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day when I took hold of their hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; for they abode not in my covenant, and I disregarded them, saith the Lord.”
Some of the Judaizers will claim that the Mosaic Law is a primordial code always known to Adamic man and that it was only later codified and written down concisely at Sinai, but this is in direct conflict with Scripture. St. Paul states in Galatians 3 that “the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul” (vs. 17). How could the Law of Moses go back to Adam if the Law of Moses came 430 years after the establishment of the covenant with his descendant Abraham?
Did God cast Adam from the garden for not wearing garments conforming to the Law of Moses? No; Adam had been naked and he was punished for breaking the only law he knew: “of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil—of it ye shall not eat”. Were the antediluvian Adamites punished for eating swine? No; they were punished for the same sin as their father Adam. There was no Mosaic Law known to Adamic man before the Sinaitic Covenant.
We know from the records in the Pentateuch that the Mosaic Law and the Sinaitic Covenant indeed came long after the Abrahamic Covenant, and it is clear in the New Testament that the New Covenant is founded on the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant; not the later Sinaitic Covenant which was broken long ago. Here in Romans 4 St. Paul makes this amply clear:
“6 Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, 7 Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. 8 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin. 9 Cometh this blessedness then upon the circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. 10 How was it then reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also: 12 And the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised. 13 For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 14 For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect: 15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression. 16 Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all, 17 (As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were. 18 Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.”
Clearly the New Covenant and the hope we have in Christ is founded on the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant and not the broken Sinaitic Covenant. Paul affirms the Abrahamic foundation of the New Covenant again in Hebrews 6 where he relates the Abrahamic promise to Christ’s sacrifice and priestly status in the order of Melchizedek:
“13 For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, 14 Saying, Surely blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. 15 And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. 16 For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 17 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: 18 That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us: 19 Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that within the veil; 20 Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.”
Here in Luke 1 St. Zacharias, the father of St. John the Baptist, prophecies of his son’s purpose to prepare the way for the Christ who would fulfill God’s oath to Abraham. Like Paul, Zacharias saw the Christ as fulfilling the promises made to Abraham long before the Law of Moses was given:
“67 And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying, 68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people, 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; 70 As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: 71 That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us; 72 To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; 73 The oath which he sware to our father Abraham, 74 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, 75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. 76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; 77 To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins, 78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us, 79 To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.”
If the Apostles and saints believed that the Abrahamic Covenant was the foundation of our Christian faith, who is any man today to doubt this? The house of Israel broke the Old Covenant and was divorced by God with the promise of a future covenant to be made “not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day when I took hold of their hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt”. What purpose then could it serve to adopt the Mosaic Law, the conditions of the Sinaitic Covenant? More to the point; is this what Christ and the Apostles taught us to do?
In Acts 15 we see that there was a “sect of the Pharisees” (vs. 5) who had established themselves within the Church and were teaching that the nations had to be circumcised and adopt the Law of Moses. The Apostles took council about this matter and eventually St. James proposed what they ought to decree:
“19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God: 20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood.”
The whole council of Jerusalem agreed and this decree was sent out to the Christians of Antioch (vv. 22-29). If the Apostles thought the Roman world should exclude pork from its diet or that the Greeks should sew fringes to their togas or thought that any other parts of the Law of Moses needed to be upheld by Christians, this would be the time to decree it, but they did not. Rather they provided us with a short and simple set of laws which are similar to laws known in the patriarchal age in our Old Testament (e.g. Genesis 9.3-5, 26.34-35, Hebrews 12.16 et al.). How then can one rightfully reprimand a Christian brother who does not keep the Law of Moses when the council of the Apostles wrote against those Pharisees who compelled Christians to take up the Law of Moses?
There are some (e.g. William Finck of Christogenea) who would claim to agree that Christians are not bound to the Law of Moses, but who hold a special contempt for those who eat pork, rabbit or shellfish etc. and such people often claim that these foods are not in fact considered food in a Biblical context. This position is simply an excuse to cling to a form of Judaizing while claiming to reject it, and these Judaizers think the dietary laws are laws they can feasibly keep, so they cling to them in their self-righteousness.
While the Mosaic Law prohibits eating these things, and the Judeans might have considered eating them to be strange, the Greco-Roman world consumed vast amounts of pork, shellfish and even snails and dormice (John E. Stambaugh, The Ancient Roman City, JHU Press p. 148, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, A History of Food, John Wiley & Sons p. 93). Surely that would have been considered by both the Judaizers and by the Apostles when they wrote their letter to the Christians in Antioch.
Before the Law of Moses was given no dietary laws against eating pork or shellfish etc. appear in our Scriptures. Adam and the family of Noah were permitted to eat “every herb bearing seed upon the earth, and all trees that have in themselves seed of their own kind” (Genesis 1.29) and the seed of Noah was also permitted to eat “every thing that moveth and liveth” except of course its blood (Genesis 9.3-4). I do not dispute that the dietary rules in the Mosaic Law provide guidance that can benefit our health, but I must strongly oppose insulting or alienating people who do not adhere to them.
Those who would exclude meats prohibited under the Law of Moses from the category of food argue that since certain animals are defined as unclean before the Law of Moses was recieved (Genesis 7.2, 8.20) that those animals were and are always forbidden. The distinction between clean and unclean in the context of the story of Noah can only be connected with sacrifice (Genesis 8.20) and not with diet. In Genesis 9.3 God tells Noah’s family that they may eat any meat without stipulation. Even if it was true that Noah considered the unclean animals unfit to eat, to read a legal prohibition into this depends on reading a law into the text where no law is recorded or exemplified. Condemning a Christian brother based on a personal interpretation of two verses is sheer folly.
Many racial universalists will claim that the prohibition against miscegenation and the exclusion of mongrels from the Church is a relic of the Law of Moses which finds no precedent outside the Sinaitic Covenant. This argument is found to be lacking as there are instances where these laws are attested in both the patriarchal and apostolic ages.
In the time of Noah mongrels were excluded from the election. Noah was chosen to preserve the Adamic race because he was “perfect in his race [G1074]”. Genea (Strong’s G1074) means “race, stock, family” (Liddell and Scott s.v.) or “men of the same stock, a family” (Thayer s.v.). His wife and sons were certainly of the same stock (Tobit 4.12) or the purity of Noah’s race would’ve been for nought. There were no bastards aboard the ark.
In Genesis 38 we see that Zerah and Pharez contended for the status of firstborn (vv. 27-30) despite the fact that Judah already had a son, Shelah (vv. 1-5). The only possible reason that Shelah was not acceptable as the firstborn of Judah is that he was a mongrel because his mother was “a daughter of a certain Canaanite” (vs. 2). The disinheritance of bastards is a part of God’s law which is transcendent of the Law of Moses.
Zechariah 14 contains a prophecy of the Kingdom of God declaring that the whole Adamic world will know God (vv. 9, 17) and all the enemies of Israel/Christendom will be destroyed (vv. 12-15). In the final verse we read “in that day there shall be no more the Chananite in the house of the Lord Almighty” (vs. 21). There is no place for Canaanite mongrels in the Kingdom of God.
Malachi 4.1 states that “a day comes burning as an oven, and it shall consume them; and all the aliens [Strong’s G241] and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that is coming shall set them on fire, saith the Lord Almighty, and there shall not be left of them root or branch”. Allogenes (Strong’s G241) means “of another race” (Liddell and Scott s.v.) or “sprung from another race” (Thayer s.v.).
Jesus said that “every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up” (Matthew 15.13). In Jesus’ parable of the wheat and the tares He tells us that the weeds sown in the field of wheat were planted by an enemy (vv. 25, 28) who is the devil and whose children are the weeds (vv. 38, 39).
There are several instances in the New Testament where acts of miscegenation are refered to as acts of fornication, and obviously fornication is condemned throughout the New Testament. The mingling of races is a sin under the New Covenant just as it was under the Old Covenant.
St. Paul, as the Apostle to the nations, was faced with the task of trying to protect the congregations which he had established among the nations from the doctrines of the Judaizers. On account of this his letters contain a great deal of information about the heresy of Judaizing. Many Judaizers today reject St. Paul, labeling him a false Apostle. They (correctly) see the Scriptures which Paul authored as an affront to their doctrine and think that, without Paul interfering, they might be able to persuade you to be Judaized.
The Galatians were afflicted harshly by the Judaizers and so Paul’s epistle to them largely consists of polemics against these heretics. Here in Galatians 5 Paul admonishes the Galatians to not submit to circumcision or to take up the Law of Moses:
“1 Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage. 2 Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. 3 For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 4 Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace. 5 For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith. 6 For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.”
The “yoke of bondage” here is a reference to the Law of Moses (Acts 15.5-10) with which the Judaizers sought to burden the nations. This is amply clear when Paul goes on to explain that he who gets himself circumcised is indebted to do the whole law. In chapter 6 Paul goes on to declare the vanity of the Judaizers:
“12 As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ. 13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. 14 But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world. 15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature. 16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.”
In 1 Corinthians 7 Paul writes “Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised”. This is very simple and direct instruction, yet some will perform extraordinary mental gymnastics to deny the obvious meaning. St. Paul never taught that those converting to Christianity from among the nations ought to become circumcised.
Some will undoubtedly argue that the covenant of circumcision was a requirement of the Abrahamic Covenant, however the Abrahamic Covenant was confirmed in chapter 15 of Genesis (vs. 18) and only later in chapter 17 is the condition of circumcision added. (vv. 10-14). Recall now Paul’s words cited earlier: “for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. … Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised” (Romans 4.9-11). The immutable promise of God to Abraham is not dependent upon circumcision.
Those who would have Christians subjected to circumcision will point to Genesis 17.13 where circumcision is refered to as an “everlasting [H5769, G166] covenant”, but the same words (owlam in Hebrew and aionios in Greek) are elsewhere used of Levitical rites (Exodus 27.21, Leviticus 6.22, Numbers 10.8 et al.), some even pertaining to sacrifice. Would the Judaizers have us believe that Christendom is required to have a Levitical priesthood offering sacrifices? Will Christ’s sacrifice and the New Covenant never satisfy them? Owlam may be read as “long time”, “time out of mind”, “lasting” or “long time” (Strong’s s.v.) and aionios is defined as “age-long” (Dodson s.v.) or “lasting for an age” (Liddell and Scott s.v.). That age has surely passed along with a valid Levitical priesthood and the need for circumcision of the flesh.
It ought to be noted here that the ancient Israelite practice of circumcision differed greatly from the later Jewish custom widely practiced in the Jewish, Islamic and American worlds today. I will not get into any grisly details here, but suffice it to say that Jewish circumcision is a horrific mockery of the Biblical rite of circumcision. Perhaps Paul is referring to these disturbed adaptations of the rite of circumcision in Philippians 3.2 where he warns of the Judaizers saying “beware the mutilation”.
In Exodus 17 we read “the child of eight days old shall be circumcised by you … the uncircumcised male, who shall not be circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul shall be utterly destroyed from its family, for he has broken my covenant” (vv. 10-14). How then can a grown man, or even a child of 9 days benefit from circumcision? It is impossible. Thank God that He has restored us to Israel under the New Covenant and our circumcision is of the heart (Colossians 2.11, Philippians 3.3). Here in Romans 3 Paul speaks of man’s inability to conform to the Law of Moses and how God overcame that.
“19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. 21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; 22 Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: 23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; 24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: 25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; 26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.”
We cannot please God by striving to keep the Law of Moses and we inevitably fail in that endeavour. James 2.10 tells us “whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all”. Psalm 130.3 rhetorically asks “If thou, O Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?” The obvious answer is that no man shall stand. No man has kept or ever can keep the whole Law of Moses, and those who try do so in vain. Not only does our sinful human nature prevent us from perfectly fulfilling the Mosaic Law, but there are many facets of the Law of Moses that we simply cannot understand fully today.
There are some laws in the Pentateuch for which there is no certain interpretation; for instance Leviticus 19.27 which reads “Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard” (KJV) or “Ye shall not make a round cutting of the hair of your head, nor disfigure your beard” (Brenton’s LXX). There are varied interpretations as to what this passage means and men today can only offer conjecture. Another point of contention is Numbers 15.38 which concerns the fringes which were to be sewn onto garments. How are they to be constructed precisely? Are they to simply be fringes or are tassels to be added to the fringes? If you affix tassles, what length is appropriate? No man knows with certainty and a man can only guess and make a vain display of himself for his trouble.
The people of the Kingdom of Israel had all departed from the Holy Land at least 2,600 years ago, and even before that most of them were pagans already. They lost their oral traditions regarding the proper understanding of all the minutiae of the Law of Moses during their apostasy and captivity. The Kingdom of Judah fared little better leaving behind little of worth for this purpose. What data about the Mosaic Law can be gleaned from sources such as Josephus, Philo and the Dead Sea Scrolls sheds little light and may well reflect errant traditions. No man today can claim complete understanding of the Law of Moses.
In Jeremiah 31.33 in a prophecy of the New Covenant God tells us “I will surely put my laws into their mind, and write them on their hearts”. This is cited twice in Paul’s epistle to the Hebrews (8.10, 10.16). To those who believe and teach that we must take up the Law of Moses, I ask you this: what is written on your heart? Is it how to sew the right type of fringes onto your garments? Is it how to properly circumcise a child? Is it judicial prescriptions? Is it to avoid wearing garments woven of two materials? Or is it written in your heart that thou shalt do no murder, thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness, honour thy father and thy mother and thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself?
“1 Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is safe.
2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
3 For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.”
“21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?
22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.
23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.
24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.
25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.
26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.
27 For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.
28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.
29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.
30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.
31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.”
“11 If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron?
12 For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law.
13 For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar.
14 For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood.
15 And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest,
16 Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.
17 For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
18 For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof.
19 For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God.
20 And inasmuch as not without an oath he was made priest:
21 (For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:)
22 By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament.”