As many Christian Identity folks are already aware, many try to claim the Ethiopians/Cushites were negroes. Usually this is done in an attempt to support a universalist position. Favoured claims are that Moses’ wife Zipporah was a negress and that the Ethiopian eunuch was a negroe. These claims are all easily refuted, but that is not my purpose here, and many scholars have covered these matters at length.
Suffice it to say that the Ethiopian eunuch was clearly a Judaean serving in the Ethiopian Court, which is easily established by the fact that he possessed Scriptures (Acts 8.28) and was making a pilgrimage to the temple (8.27) where only Judaeans were permitted (Acts 21.28-29, 24.5-6, the Temple Warning inscription). He was also converted before Cornelius and the agreement to convert the nations. Judaeans are elsewhere referred to as Parthians, Medes, Elamites, Cretes and Arabians according to their residence and not their ethnicity (Acts 2.5-11) and this is certainly the case with the Ethiopian eunuch. The fact that the Ethiopian Eunuch was a Judaean was also known to the early Christian writers Irenaeus and Pontius (Against Heresies 4.23.2-4.24.1, Life of St. Cyprian 3).
Zipporah was a Midianite or a Cushite from the Ethiopia of Asia (Herodotus, Histories 3.94, 7.70, Josephus Antiquities 1.6.2). This is apparent from the fact that Moses met her in Midian (Exodus 2.15), of which her father was high priest (2.16) and that her father Jethro is elsewhere called a Midianite (Numbers 10.29). There is more to be said of the Ethiopia of Asia that can be gleaned from classical history and Scripture which we will not discuss here. The focus of this article will be on the Ethiopia of Africa. What is important to note concerning the Ethiopia of Asia is that the African Ethiopians were of the same Caucasoid stock as the Asiatic Ethiopians.
‘The Noahite Nations: the Hamites’
After describing the civilised Ethiopians Diodorus Siculus goes on to describe in contrast the primitive hominids dwelling in Ethiopia and nearby regions.
“1 But there are also a great many other tribes of the Ethiopians, some of them dwelling in the land lying on both banks of the Nile and on the islands in the river, others inhabiting the neighbouring country of Arabia, and still others residing in the interior of Libya. 2 The majority of them, and especially those who dwell along the river, are black in colour and have flat noses and woolly hair. As for their spirit they are entirely savage and display the nature of a wild beast, not so much, however, in their temper as in their ways of living; for they are squalid all over their bodies, they keep their nails very long like the wild beasts, and are as far removed as possible from human kindness to one another; 3 and speaking as they do with a shrill voice and cultivating none of the practices of civilized life as these are found among the rest of mankind, they present a striking contrast when considered in the light of our own customs.”
-Library of History, 3.8.1
When describing the civilized Ethiopians Diodorus makes no mention of their physical characteristics, but when he mentions the savages the first things he notes are their black skin, flat noses and wooly hair. I think that if Diodorus had observed these physical traits among the civilized Ethiopians, he would not have made specific note of them among the savage Ethiopians. It is very doubtful there were any purely Adamic Ethiopians in Diodorus’ time, but certainly there was a remnant of their civilization and blood.
In section 1.23 in the second book of Pomponious Mela’s Chorographia he makes mention of Leucaethiopians or White Ethiopians inhabiting a certain region along the Libyan Sea.
“On those shores washed by the Libyan Sea, however, are found the Libyan Aegyptians, the White Aethiopians, and, a populous and numerous nation, the Gaetuli. Then a region, uninhabitable in its entire length, covers a broad and vacant expanse.”
In section 5.8 of Pliny the Elder’s Natural History we read again of White Ethiopians.
“If we pass through the interior of Africa in a southerly direction, beyond the Gaetuli, after having traversed the intervening deserts, we shall find, first of all the Liby-Egyptians, and then the country where the Leucaethiopians dwell.”
These sources do not agree on a single precise location for these White Ethiopians but both attest to their existence and place them near the Libyan-Egyptians and the Berber tribe of the Gaetuli. It is probable that many fled Ethiopia in the wake of the incursions of Nilotic and Bantu tribes, but the most likely cause of this dispersion is the deportation of of the Ethiopians and Egyptians by Esarhaddon prophecied in Isaiah 20 and attested to in Assyrian inscriptions. Thus we see them neighbouring these Libyan-Egyptians, also seemingly uprooted from their original homelands. Undoubtedly these deportations contributed greatly to the decline of genuine Cushite blood in Ethiopia.
In the 4th-century AD a remnant of the Cushites continued to be perceived as distinct from the black tribes of the region. A 4th century victory stela commemorating the Axumite king Ezana contains inscriptions describing separate ethnic groups dwelling in ancient Nubia: Kushites and Noba/Nubians. The Nubians themselves seem to be divided into “red” and “black” groups while both are distinguished from the Cushites. Reading from RIE 189:
“7.By the power of the Lord of All I made war on the Noba once 8.the confederations of the Noba had made war, having acted haughtily. “They will not cross the Takkazē!” said the confeder9.ations of the Noba. At that time they had wrought havoc upon the peoples of the Mangurto and the Khasa and the Barya, and the blacks 10.made war on the reds. … 28.And I reached the Kushites and killed them and took [others] prisoner at the 29.confluence of the Nile and the Takkazē rivers … And from there I sent the division of Ḥalēn, the division of Lūkēn, and 35.the division of Sabarāt, Falḥa, and Ṣerā’ down the Nile against the four towns of 36.straw of the Noba: [the town of] Negwase; [and] the towns of brick of the Kushites which the Noba had captured, Tabito [and] 37.Fertoti. And they reached the territory of the Red Noba, and my tr38.oops returned safe and sound, having taken prisoners and killed and seized booty by the power of the Lord of Hea39.ven.”
The 16th century Berber explorer Leo Africanus described the existence of various “white” or “olive” groups and individuals inhabiting the Horn of Africa, comprising much of the population of the Adal Sultanate and Mogadishu Sultanate (The History and Description of Africa, Hakluyt Society, pgs. 52-53). He further asserts that pockets of other “white” or “olive” skinned residents could also be found on two small islands north of Socotra and in parts of the Zanguebar coast (ibid. pg. 88).
Many look at the average Ethiopian, or select tribes of Ethiopia and see that they have dark brown or black skin and often have nappy hair. Some tribes in Ethiopia are in fact negroes (hereafter Congoids, the appropriate racial classification) but these are not autocthonous nor are they the majority. These Congoid populations in the Horn of Africa descend from more recent Nilotic and Bantu migrations alien to ancient Ethiopia. The fact is, that the racial archetype of Ethiopia (Aethiopid) is a subtype of the Caucasoid race and not the Congoid race. Aethiopids are a Mediterranid stabilized with a Congoid element with other Caucasoid influences in certain Aethiopic subtypes.
Aethiopids have large braincases and high vaulted skulls whereas Congoids have smaller braincases and low vaulted skulls. Aethiopids have no protrusion of the jaws as do Congoids and they also lack the large teeth of the Congoid race. The Aethiopid race lacks the rectangular shape of the palate and eye orbit typical of Congoids and the large and round nasal cavity of the Congoid is also absent in the Aethiopid.
Aethiopids typically have lighter skin and sometimes wavy or moderately curly hair. Aethiopids do not exhibit the wide and flat nose of the Congoid race and rather have long and narrow noses. They have limbs of typical Caucasoid proportions which lack the extra length of the Congoid’s limbs. They are by no means Congoid either in their morphology or craniometry. In layman’s terms they appear as if the skin of a Negroe was draped over the flesh and bone of a Caucasian. The American anthropologist Carleton S. Coon explains the racial state of the Horn of Africa today very well where he states:
“On the basis of these correlations, it is evident that the partly negroid appearance of Ethiopians and of Somalis is due to a mixture between whites and negroes, and that the Ethiopian cannot be considered the representative of an undifferentiated stage in the development of both whites and blacks, as some anthropologists would have us believe. On the whole, the white strain is much more numerous and much more important metrically, while in pigmentation and in hair form the negroid influence has made itself clearly seen.”
-Carleton S. Coon, The Races of Europe, Macmillan 9.8
Another matter of anthropological interest to Ethiopia is the fact that Ethiopia is ethno-linguistically Afro-Asiatic. The various Congoid peoples generally speak Niger-Congo or Nilo-Saharan languages which are distinct from the Afro-Asiatic languages spoken by the autocthones of Northern Africa and the Horn of Africa.
Today the autocthonous Afro-Asiatic speakers of the Horn of Africa retain a large portion of identifiable Eurasian genetic markers. The percentage of identifiable Eurasian markers peaks in Semitic and Cushitic speaking populations but also extends into adjacent populations. This is to say nothing of the regionally African genetic markers which cannot be clearly identified with any specific populations and which may be of Caucasoid origin.
In Biblical times Ethiopia is one of the first Adamic nations to be lost to miscegenation.
“For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.”
It seems God placed these Hamites between Israel and the non-Adamic sub-Saharan Congoid tribes who had crossed the desert and begun to move into Northern Africa and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia and Egypt exist as nations (in the deracinated modern sense), but certainly the posterity of the original Hamitic inhabitants has been lost.
‘Fornication, Adultery and Idolatry: a Biblical Case Against Miscegenation’
‘The Origins of the Non-Adamic Races’
Some point to Jeremiah 13.23 as evidence that the Ethiopians originated as a black skinned race.
“23If the Ethiopian shall change his skin, or the leopardess her spots, then shall ye be able to do good, having learnt evil.”
However Jeremiah wrote later than Isaiah who spoke in hindsight of God forfeiting Ethiopia and other Hamitic nations in Africa. Thus we should fully expect many of the Ethiopians of the time of Jeremiah to have been darkened and dissimilar to their original racial state. Nonetheless we need not assume that the darkness of the Ethiopians compared to the Israelites was the product of miscegenation as the Hamites were generally of Mediterranean stock. This can be clearly seen in the art of the Egyptians and the “Minoans”. As I hope to have demonstrated elsewhere, the “Minoans”/Cretans are one and the same as the Biblical Philistines. To the pale Israelites such stock would surely have seemed dark in comparison to themselves and other Semites.
‘The Noahite Nations: the Hamites’
‘Physical Descriptions and Depictions of the Adamites, Shemites, Hebrews, Israelites and Judahites’
The word Ethiopia itself is of interest. It is commonly thought to come from two Greek components. Aitho (to scorch) and ops (the face). Pure-blooded congoids do not commonly suffer greatly from sunburn, and it would seem that aithiops must describe a sunburn or tan. The component aithos itself may be taken to mean “shining” and if we take aithiops to mean “shining face”, then neither can this describe a Congoid, whose face absorbs light rather than reflecting it.
I believe that in light of this evidence the Scriptural narrative and Christian Identity position concerning the Ethiopia of Africa is wholly validated. In Ethiopia we see a land founded by White Hamites grown racially corrupt. After the Nilotic and Bantu expansions out of Central and Western Africa in the 2nd millennium BC and the deportations of the Ethiopians by Esarhadon in the 7th century BC the descendants of Cush in Africa dwindled and darkened.