Ossipumphnoferu. He was the general of Thutmose III who was probably the Exodus pharaoh.
Three passages in the Pentateuch indicate that the Israelites were physically similar to the Egyptian nobility that ruled when the Israelites dwelt there and could not be easily distinguished from them (Genesis 42.8, 50.1-11, Exodus 2.19). Considering the racially tumultuous history of Egypt, if we want to make use of these clues, it is necessary that we establish when the Israelites lived in Egypt and what race ruled Egypt at that time.
Both the records of Flavius Josephus and an honest study of the chronology of the period attest to us that an 18th Dynasty pharaoh named Thutmose (called Tethmosis by Josephus, Against Apion 1.91-94, most probably Thutmose III) was the pharaoh of the Exodus. Another four pharaohs bearing this name were all related. Hatshepsut was the fifth of the Thutmosid Dynasty, and it is probably she who became Moses’ adoptive Egyptian mother, perhaps giving him a form of her family name. The sixth and eighth pharaohs of the dynasty were Thutmose III and IV. Amenhotep III then reigned until Akhenaten took the throne.
Josephus regarded the Hyksos of Manetheo’s Aegyptica as being the same people as the Israelites (Against Apion 1.91-92, 103-104). While this is only partially correct, Manetheo evidently confusing or conflating the Hebrews and related Asiatic Shemites as the Hyksos in his account, this does help to establish the correct dating of the Egyptian captivity and Exodus to the early-mid 2nd millennium BC. This is the period during which the Hyksos are known to have dwelt in Egypt.
It was during the reign of Akhenaten that the Amarna Letters were written. As I have demonstrated in this essay, the Amarna letters document the Hebrew conquest of Canaan. While his Canaanite subjects begged Akhenaten to send soldiers to halt the Hebrew’s conquest, Akhenaten would not hear their pleas, probably because the Exodus was fresh in his people’s memory.
Here I have gathered some images of 18th dynasty mummies such as Yuya, Tjuyu, Thutmose IV and Ossipumphnoferu as well as the 19th dynasty pharaoh Ramesses II and they are unquestionably Caucasoid with Nordid features and fair blonde, red or sandy brown hair. If Israelites such as Moses and Joseph were blending in among their contemporary Egyptian nobility then they must have had similar phenotypes.
This stock had ostensibly been present to some degree since pre-dynastic times. The Gebelein pre-dynastic mummies all had Nordoid or Nordo-Mediterranean cranial and facial features. All had sandy brown hair, with the exception of their leader, dubbed “Ginger”, who had strawberry blonde hair. Given their very early dating, these were probably among the first Noahite settlers in Egypt.
Of course these Nordoid Egyptians are probably not the original stock of Mizraim. The Hamitic stock of Egypt was certainly generally of the Mediterranean variety which is clear from the art of ancient Egypt, the mummified remains of the Egyptians and the racial types which dominate there today, altered somewhat as they are.
These Nordoid Egyptians probably grew in prevalence with the influx of a more fair Shemitic stock in the Middle Bronze Age, most probably connected to the migrations of Asiatic chariot warriors such as the Hyksos from the Levant. I have expounded upon this thesis in this essay near the end of the entry for Arphaxad and sons.
Though the North African Hamitic stock of Egypt would eventually fully reassert itself, casting the Asiatic Shemitic stock of Egypt into obscurity, this fairer stock would persist in small numbers even up until the 7th century BC and the illegal occupation of Egypt by the mongrel Nubians. Even today, occasional throwbacks to Nordoid traits such as hyperdepigmentation, narrow upright noses and tall stature can be observed among some of the inhabitants of Egypt.
At the site of Tell el-Daba (the later Hyksos capital of Avaris) in the land of Goshen in Egypt, there has been a remarkable discovery: the tomb of an Asiatic nobleman containing the remains of a statue, dating to the end of the 12th dynasty. The paint remaining on the statue shows that the owner was a red-haired man who wore a coat of many colours. He held a throw-stick on his shoulder which marks him as a man of authority. His red hair was cut in the “mushroom” style commonly worn by Northern Asiatics like the Syrians (e.g. many of the Syrian tribute bearers painted in TT100, the tomb of Rekhmire). On top of the remains of a modest “mittlesaalhaus” in Syrian style, we find a lavish house of Egyptian construction with 12 pillars in the portico. On the property outside the house are 12 tombs, including the lavish tomb containing the statue.
The connections to the tribes of Israel and Joseph are striking: the location in the later Hyksos capital in Goshen (Genesis 45.10, 47.1-27, 50.8, Exodus 8.22 et al.), the Syrian characteristics of the statue and the original “mittlesaalhaus” construction on the property (Genesis 24.1-10, 25.20, 28.1-5, Deuteronomy 26.5 et al.), the red hair (Genesis 25.25, 1 Samuel 16.12, 17.42, Strong’s and Gesenius s.v. admoniy, Liddell-Scott s.v. purrakes), the coat of many colours (Genesis 37.3-32), the 12 tombs and pillars (Genesis 49.28, Exodus 39.14 et al.), and the fact that the remains of the nobleman were exhumed from the tomb (Genesis 50.25, Exodus 13.19 et al.). If this is not the house and tomb of Joseph son of Israel, then at the very least this gives us an interesting glimpse into the place and time in which the Israelites dwelt in Egypt.